AQ Monitoring Sites
Purpose for Monitoring
The Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Section implements studies and investigations to determine compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The National Ambient Air Quality Standards include maximum allowable pollution levels for particulate matter, ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, lead, and carbon monoxide. The department operates ongoing sampling network to test for pollution levels and determine compliance with the national standards. Click here to view a listing of monitoring areas across the state.
What We Monitor (monitoring network for 2012)
Under a State Implementation Plan with the Environmental Protection Agency the state operates an ambient air monitoring network of samplers. The state tests for current pollution levels for particulate matter, ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and air toxics.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources (department) to conduct an annual review of the state’s ambient air monitoring network. The requirements maintain that the state must conduct an annual review to determine if the air quality surveillance system or ambient air monitoring network meets the monitoring objectives. This document is intended to satisfy the annual requirement.
Particulate Matter (Dust)
Testing is conducted for both fine (PM2.5) and course (PM10) particulate matter at eleven locations in the state. See the Map of Monitoring Sites for more details on site locations.
PM2.5 samplers collect data on particulate matter pollution 2.5 microns and smaller in size (fine dust). Sources of this type of pollution are fuel combustion and burning activities. Many of the current sampling sites began testing in 1999. Monitoring goals include collecting data in population centers, assessing long-range transport from other states, determining background concentrations, measuring success of pollution prevention programs, and responding to air quality complaints from the public.
PM10 samplers collect data on particulate matter pollution 10 microns and smaller in size (coarse dust). Sources of PM10 include larger particle sizes from roads, construction projects, and farm tillage and also includes the fine particulate matter pollution. The PM10 sampler network was setup in 1987. Concentrations exceeding the national standard have been recorded in Rapid City and Brookings due to high winds and dry soil conditions.
Ozone (Ground level Smog)
The department is operating an ozone monitor in Sioux Falls, Rapid City, Wind Cave and the Badlands. The collection of data will also assist in future development of industry throughout the state. Ground level ozone is caused by the oxidation of nitrogen oxides from combustion sources and volatile organic compounds from industrial processes.
Ambient sulfur dioxide concentrations result largely from stationary sources burning coal and oil, such as electric utilities and industrial boilers. The potential to have high concentrations of sulfur dioxide in South Dakota is low due to the type and size of the industries located in the state. The department is operating a sulfur dioxide monitor in Sioux Falls, Rapid City, Wind Cave and the Badlands.
Nitrogen oxides form when fuel is burned at high temperatures. The two major emission sources are transportation and stationary fuel combustion sources such as vehicles and electric utility and industrial boilers. The potential to have high concentrations of nitrogen oxide in South Dakota is low due to the type and size of the industries located in the state. The department is operating a nitrogen oxide monitor in Sioux Falls, Rapid City, Wind Cave and the Badlands.
Air Toxic data is collected at one site located in Sioux Falls and at a site in Custer. No state or national standards currently exist. The air toxic sampling project is part of a national research project to determining current levels of pollutants. The data will be used to determine the need for future air quality standards.
The map below indicates the areas in which monitoring is occuring.
Click on an area below to see site information and what is being monitored at each site.